In this section, we will present only historical information on the individual garments worn by men. Lưu ý that some of the garments may also be worn by women or may have a feminine counterpart, often with the same name even if it has a different cut. In a later section, we will detail the construction of these garments. Therein we will also address information on these garments & how their use might be applied to lớn historical re-enactors. All of the graphics with a blue border link to larger images which will pop up in a separate window. Likewise, when the text discusses other garments, highlighted words will bring up a small image of the garment mentioned (to save readers from scrolling back and forth lớn see what is being referenced). Colors and fabric patterns are likewise highlighted to pop up a window showing what these look like.
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This is far from a complete listing of all the garments that existed in all of nhật bản from the days of Jimmu. Rather, it is a presentation of the more important garments và the ones key to making up the various outfits most important in Japanese history. For the sake of simplicity, for the present we are presenting mostly garments worn from the Heian period (794–1183) through the Edo period (1600–1868), although at some point we plan to showroom earlier garments and the Nara variants of Heian clothes already covered here.
This is a garment worn with thesokutai. It was worn between the outer and innermost garment(s), typically above thehitoeand below theshitagasane. It is cut generally similarly to lớn thehitoe, with a double-wide body toàn thân and a long, open collar. The front and back are, lượt thích thehitoe, left unsewn together at the sides. It is lined. This garment is the same cut for everyone from the Emperor on down.
Most commonly, and for most formal wear, the surface màu sắc iskurenai(orange-red). For the upper nobility (at least third rank và above) the pattern waskoaoi,tatewaku, orhishi, và the fabric itself is a stiff patterned silk. For those oftenjōbitostatus, the surface was plain, stiffened silk. The lining is alsokurenai, unpatterned, và of plain silk. The fabric may change, however, depending on the situation. A pale yellow-green used by ministers and the aged was called “someakome,” & the elderly might also use a trắng “shiroakome.”
It is sometimes called “akome no kinu,” & often in garments of the Heian period, when a reference is made to “kinu” as an vật phẩm of sub-wear (that is, below over-robes), it is theakome, or a longer version of it, that is being discussed. It is also called “uchiki,” though that term is more often used inwomen"s outfits, though the two serve similar purposes, often being layered one on đứng đầu of the other, with the primary difference being that the men"sakomeis typically shorter.
In cold weather, one could wear anakomestuffed with silk floss called an “atsuginu,” though typically, for warmth, one would just layer theakomeas needed. In the summer, the lining could be torn out, which was called “hieki.” If it was worn outside of thehakamathen it was called “ideakome.”
Anakomemade with fabric that was beaten (“uchi”) with a wooden block was known as anuchigioruchiginu. A starchy paste was applied to lớn the inner lining, creating what was called a “hariakome”, an especially stiffakome, known as anemon no uchigi.
The ceremonial court garb of the Emperor, which has thekonryōpattern.
Daimon (no hitatare) （大紋）
The garment is generally just referred to as a “daimon,” which is short for “daimon no hitatare.” It is an upper-body garment identical in cut khổng lồ thehitatareproper.
Daimonare cloth (usually not silk)hitatarewith a large crest (whence the name is derived, fromdai
Matchinghakamaworn with thedaimonhave white waist ties, like those worn withhitatareproper. It is a less casual vật phẩm than ahitatare, & more formal than asuō.
In the Edo period, thedaimonsuffered a strange development which resulted in the sleeves becoming something bizarre and unique to lớn this garment.
(Also called “dōfuku.”) It should not be confused with the other garment with which it shares the namedōbuku/dōfuku. The word for this garment is written with thekanjifor “torso” & “clothing.”
This overgarment is a short, open-fronted jacket. It came into being in the Momoyama period, & was the forerunner of the modernhaori, much as thekosodewas the forerunner of the modernkimono. Originally, it was a merchant’s garment, but samurai began wearing it due lớn its comfort. It was intended as a protection against the cold or dirt of the outside but was commonly worn indoors as well.
Dōbukucould be sleeved or sleeveless và were of indeterminate length anywhere from the waist to lớn below the buttocks. The collar is either broad and folded over lượt thích wrap-around lapels or narrow và integral lượt thích that on akataginu. The collar was occasionally of contrasting or different fabric, anddōbukuwere sometimes lined in gaudy colors when worn by men of rank. There was often a tie of some kind at the breast to hold the garment closed.
Takada Shizuo says that no respectable samurai would go out in public in the Sengoku period without either adōbukuorkataginu on. It may have been inspired by the Europeancappa, or capelet. João Rodriguez—the historical model for Fr. Alvito, the interpreter “Tsuku-san” in the bookShōgun—says that thedōbukudate from Hideyoshi’s time.
Thedōbukuis a very informal, leisurely garment.
(Also called “dōbuku.”) It should not be confused with the other garment with which it shares the namedōbuku/dōfuku. The word for this garment is written with the kanji for “way” (as in “dō/tao”) and “clothing.”
Thedōfukucomes in two varieties: there is a knee-length version (distinguished by the termko-dōfuku), và the ankle-length garment that looks surprisingly lượt thích a modern Western dressing gown except for the large, full sleeves. Two sets of ties, one inside và one outside the garment at the waist, secure it closed. The skirt section is cut rather full & actually tapers out in a vague bell shape. It was a Momoyama development based on a monastic garment calledjikitotsu.
Thedōfukuwas the leisure garment of lay monastics và other men who have functionally retired from worldly cares lớn devote themselves to spiritual or artistic matters. Sometimes, those in orders would wear akesaover it.
By the early Edo period, thedōfukuhad become the virtual uniform of tea masters (as masters of the “Way” of Tea), artisans, & haiku poets.
Asuikanworn at special occasions like festivals. The sleeve-end panels and collars were of a different pattern or color of fabric. This garment was primarily worn during the Heian & Kamakura periods. It presented a young, energetic, and festive appearance.
This is the generic term for pants. There were actually several varieties ofhakama. See, for example, entries here forsashinuki,hitatare no hakama, ōguchi, uenohakama, sayomi-bakama, kukuri-bakama, yonobakama,sashiko, nagabakama, kobakama, andsuikan no hakama.
Hakamacould be of varying lengths or fullness. The cheapesthakamawere made of two panels (that is, made with two widths of cloth, one front, one back) per leg. More commonhakamawere four-panelhakama, and the fullest và most luxuriant models were made of six panels. The lower number of panels, in addition to lớn limiting the fullness, limited the number of pleats that could be made.
Hakamaworn by commoners and laborers in Heian were two panel, and typically only reached to the mid-calf or a bit lower. During the sixteenth century, low-class warriors often wore a knee-length two- or three-panelhakamawhich were sometimes calledkobakama, a terminology problem as regularhakamawere also calledkobakamain the Edo period owing khổng lồ the formalnagabakamabeing the “formal” norm.
According to lớn Takada,bushidid not go out in public without wearinghakamaover theirkosode. By the end of the Momoyama period, when relaxing at trang chủ or in the garden, abushimight wear only akosodeand not wearhakama, but this is an exceptional circumstance; when going out in public, not wearing thehakamawould be the height of slovenly or informal appearance, being more appropriate for farmers in the fields, laborers, và poor, low-ranking ashigaru.
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The width of the front và back panel at the waist were the same (c. 27 cm. Wide) until the late Muromachi period, when the rear width was reduced khổng lồ its modern width of about two-thirds that of the front. The rear ties also became narrower (having previously been the same as those in front). It was common, particularly in earlier versions, for the ties to be attached at the front & back with reinforcing cords (usually two, white silk cords, one z-twist & one s-twist, paired together). These cords wove in and out of the fabric and appear lớn have been there, originally, lớn help keep the ties attached to lớn the rest of the garment.
Manyhakamawere made “crotchless”—that is, the underneath seam was left unclosed. This was to lớn allow one’s natural bodily functions (at least the “smaller” ones) without having to disrobe. This was structurally easier to vày with the more fullhakama, of course. Others had overlapping gussets making a fly or were just sewn shut with a normal gusset.
Earlierhakama, unlike modern martial artshakama, had two clearly defined legs, rather than having the pleats overlapping left và right so that one can’t tell where one leg ends & the other begins. Another modern feature is thekoshi"ita, the solid panel at the small of the back. This seems lớn have appeared sometime in the very late days of the sixteenth century, as earlierhakamawere merely cut straight across the back as at the front. Even after its introduction, it does not appear lớn have become de rigeour until the Edo period.
Somehakamaduring the Sengoku period had the hems made narrower than the body toàn thân in imitation of the ballooning trousers worn by the Portuguese. This style carried on into the Edo period & became calledkarusan-bakama. In addition lớn the taper, they had a secured band of cloth—looking rather like a pants cuff—sewn around each leg’s hem, so the ballooning fabric would not mở cửa out lượt thích regularhakama.
Formalhakamawere typically lined. Lined hakama were calledai-hakama, distinguishing them from those unlinedhakamacommonly worn more in summer months, which were calledhitoe-hakama.
The Roman Catholic missionary & historian of japan Luis Frois wrote thathakamain the latter part of the sixteenth century were commonly made of cotton owing khổng lồ the fabric’s durability.
When it was warm, or when performing strenuous tasks, people wearinghakamacould hike them up và either thrust the hem into the sides of the waist ties, or pull thekosodeunderneath up from the front hem and tuck the corners in the front of the waist ties; both of these actions were called “momotori” and had the effect of making thehakamafunctionally into short pants. It was not a particularly high-class thing khổng lồ do.
If you want lớn make your own, you can tải về a simplepattern for hakama. This should be a good starting point for any other hakama types.
Thehanpiis sleeveless or short sleeved garment that was originally imported from china and become part of the full, formalsokutai. It is a sleeveless garment, with an mở cửa collar và a body two panels wide. The front and back are not sewn together until shortly before the waist, where a “skirt” orranis attached (though some later versions had them as separate pieces, as noted below). The skirt has several accordion folds at both the left và right side to lớn allow for a smoother fit.
The hanpi derived from a Chinese garment (banpi) that had variants worn by men and women. It was occasionally worn over other garments, but generally under thehō.
In late Heian, with the development of the two traditions of fashion (Takakura & Yamashina schools), two variations on thehanpiemerged. The Takakura school followed the original pattern, while the Yamashina divided the garment (setsu hanpi), making the đứng đầu portion wear like a short tabard with an overlapping front, while the now heavily pleated skirt section was attached separately with a built-in waist tie.
It is worn over theshitagasane, directly under thehō. For thesokutai, its colors & patterns were generally proscribed, but for the less formal variations (e.g.,ikanorhogō sugata) more leeway was allowed for decoration.Hanpiworn withketteki no hōhad skirts about twice the length of the normal mã sản phẩm (which is pictured here).
In the winter, since it wouldn’t show under the solidhō, it was sometimes omitted; however, since it always showed under the translucent summerweighthōand so was always worn. This only held true for thehōeki no hō; it was never left off when wearing the open-sidedketteki no hō.
For a chart showing the colors & fabrics prescribed for thehanpias worn with asokutai,click here.
A short version of thesoken. In đen silk or hemp, this was the standard overgarment of thesōhei, worn even over their armor.
This garment is a variation—or a development of—thenōshi. Structurally it is almost identical except that the body is about twice as long as the regularnōshi. It was worn only by the Emperor, apparently. Because it was usually worn trailing, rather than hiked up, it was also called “sage("hanging")nōshi.”
The garments worn under it—such as thehitoeand theakome—were likewise extended, & called “naga-ginu” and “naga-hitoe.”
Thehiramiis a type of wrapped skirt, ormo, imported with Chinese fashion. While wrapped skirts continued in women"s clothing, both in the court and out, thehiramidoes not appear khổng lồ have taken root in men"s fashion outside of specific ceremonial clothing, & even that faded in the mid-Heian period, with the exception of a particular mix of ceremonial robes that continued to lớn be used up through the Meiji period.
As a part of theraifuku, thehiramiwas the classic Han Chinese wrapped apron seen, even today, on statues of legendary kings & officials. It was a part of the official court garb of civilian officials of the Tang court, và thus was adopted into the regulations of court regalia of Suiko Tennō, Temmu Tennō, & subsequently mentioned in later edicts.
The shape of thehiramiis essentially a rectangle pleated into a waistband that terminates in ties at either end. Thus, to be worn, it would be wrapped around the waist & tied. Images typically show that thehiramiwas often long enough to lớn pool on the floor around one"s ankles while standing, completely covering all but the tips of the shoes. While there are many cases where it was worn over vị trí cao nhất of thehō, in some cases it was worn underneath, showing at the hems. It is also sometimes referred to lớn as anuwamo.
Thehitatareis an upper-body garment with a double-panel width body, and is mở cửa down the front and along the sides. Unlikekariginuandsuikanwith their standing collars, it has an mở cửa collar. The sleeves are attached khổng lồ the body toàn thân only for about half their length, the bottoms being allowed khổng lồ hang free.
During the Heian period it was the daily garment of the common laborer (and had shorter, narrower sleeves, sometimes only slightly larger than needed for the arms). Owing khổng lồ its open-necked comfort, it was also worn by thekugeas nightwear (over akosode) and for warmth on colder evenings.
Though they reached the đứng top levels of the aristocracy, the Heike enjoyed wearinghitatarewhen traveling và at home, and so the popularity of the garment spread among the upper classes in the twelfth century.
Thehitatarewere made more “impressive” with larger sleeves & became the common daywear of thebukein the Kamakura period; it was also about this time that the wrist cord was added (end of Heian/early Kamakura periods). Unlikesuikanandkariginu(where it went through the entire fabric & lining, if any), the wrist cord went through a series of loops sewn to lớn the surface of the fabric, or through the tunnel of the wrist seam itself. Later, it seems to have become purely decorative, with only a small piece of cord tied in at the lower corners of the sleeves.