Machiavelli, niccolò

Italian diplomat Niccolò Machiavelli is best known for writing The Prince, a handbook for unscrupulous politicians that inspired the term "Machiavellian" và established its tác giả as the "father of modern political theory."

Who Was Niccoló Machiavelli?

Niccolò Machiavelli was a diplomat for 14 years in Italy's Florentine Republic during the Medici family's exile. When the Medici family returned to lớn power in 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed and briefly jailed. He then wrote The Prince, a handbook for politicians on the use of ruthless, self-serving cunning, inspiring the term "Machiavellian" và establishing Machiavelli as the "father of modern political theory." He also wrote several poems và plays. He died on June 21, 1527, in Florence, Italy.

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Early Life và Diplomatic Career

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy, on May 3, 1469 — a time when Italy was divided into four rival city-states and, thusly, was at the mercy of stronger governments throughout the rest of Europe.

The young Machiavelli became a diplomat after the temporary fall of Florence's ruling Medici family in 1494. He served in that position for 14 years in Italy's Florentine Republic during the Medici family's exile, during which time he earned a reputation for deviousness, enjoying shocking his associates by appearing more shameless than he truly was.

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After his involvement in an unsuccessful attempt khổng lồ organize a Florentine militia against the return of the Medici family to lớn power in 1512 became known, Machiavelli was tortured, jailed and banished from an active role in political life.




'The Prince'

Though it was initially a dark period for his career, Machiavelli's time away from politics gave him the opportunity khổng lồ read Roman history và to write political treatises, most notably The Prince. The main theme of this short work about monarchal rule and survival is man's capacity for determining his own destiny in opposition to lớn the power nguồn of fate, which has been interpreted as the political philosophy that one may resort lớn any means in order lớn establish và preserve total authority. The work has been regarded as a handbook for politicians on the use of ruthless, self-serving cunning, và inspired the term "Machiavellian." While many believe that the book's title character, "the prince," was based upon the infamous Cesare Borgia, some scholars consider it a satire.

Pope Clement VIII condemned The Prince for its endorsement of rule by deceit và fear. One excerpt from the book reads: "Since love and fear can hardly exist together, if we must choose between them, it is far safer to lớn be feared than loved."

Books và Other Works

In addition khổng lồ The Prince, Machiavelli wrote the treatise On the Art of War (1521), among others, & several poems & plays, including 1524's satirical The Mandrake.

Later Years, Death & Legacy

In his later years, Machiavelli resided in a small village just outside of Florence. He died in the đô thị on June 21, 1527. His tomb is in the church of Santa Croce in Florence, which, ironically, he had been banned from entering during the last years of his life. Today, Machiavelli is regarded as the "father of modern political theory."

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