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One of the clearest signs of the distance between Vietnamese in the diaspora and those in Vietnam is whether or not they recognize the significance of the name “Kiều.” Many in the diaspora, especially those who immigrated when they were very young neither recognize the name nor understand its cultural significance.
I posed the question “Who is Kiều?” lớn a handful of Vietnamese American women. I received an assortment of answers from “…some dude in a rice hat…” (I don’t think she was being funny), “you mean Việt Kiều?”, “don’t know” lớn “something not khổng lồ name your daughter.” The last woman clarified: “She had a terrible life. Don’t name your daughter Kiều or after flowers.”
Alternatively, tune into the thoughts of Vietnamese writer và photographer, BeBe Khuê Jacobs, who lived in Vietnam until she immigrated to new york as a teen:
“I was told that it was what it meant to lớn be a Vietnamese woman and my destiny as a Vietnamese girl. Kiều was stories from my childhood. Was the linguistic bible for my family. They quoted it like the scriptures. They recited verses that rolled around in the mouth onto the tongue; the words were chewed like nectar from sweet rice. Kiều was what we were fed during the famine years; we were fed words, poetry và Truyện Kiều lớn satisfy our hunger for grains of knowledge in the basket of scarcities.”
People in Vietnam, especially women, recognize Truyện Kiều (The Tale of Kiều) not only as Vietnam’s “national epic” but the epitome of its cultural brilliance & its “revolutionary” spirit.
Women like Jacobs who were born và raised in Vietnam are immersed in Truyện Kiều and a language replete with references to Kiều. They play games like Bói Kiều where they pray to lớn Giác Duyên, the kind Buddhist nun who rescued Kiều, before randomly pointing lớn a verse in the epic poem lớn select a line that is supposed lớn prophesize their future.
The main protagonist, Kiều, saw tragedy và betrayal three times but never lost her beauty & talent, nor her ability to trust. Kiều (a.k.a. Nguyễn Du, Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, any Vietnamese woman who has been betrayed, any Vietnamese man who has been been politically sabotaged, anybody who has ever been fucked-over ever—thus, literally anyone) is an other-wordly beauty with immense literary and musical talent & unrivaled virtuosity. As a result of ingrained Confucian filial piety, Kiều refuses khổng lồ consummate her love for Scholar-dude-lover-#1, Kim Trọng, only to lớn regret this when she later sells herself as a concubine into a marriage khổng lồ save her father from debt imprisonment. Lớn her dismay, Kiều’s first husband pimps her into prostitution where she meets Client-dude-lover-#2, Thúc Sinh, who falls in love with her & buys her out of prostitution. This angers his wife who kidnaps Kiều & sells her into a life of servitude. Kiều runs away to lớn a Buddhist temple where a nun, Giác Duyên, saves her và she’s momentarily safe until she is tricked into a second stint in prostitution. She meets Rebel-leader-dude-lover-#3, tự Hải, who marries her & sweeps her away for a few peaceful years until he is betrayed & she is taken as a prize and married lớn a mandarin. Kiều does the honorable thing—throws herself into a river, only to lớn have her suicide foiled by Giác Duyên. She becomes a nun for 15 years before reuniting with Scholar-dude-lover-#1 (who married Kiều’s younger sister at Kiều’s request) who makes her his legitimate first wife. Regardless, Kiều insists on celibacy, saying she’s unworthy of his love because she’s so sullied. They agree lớn live together platonically. Lượt thích they don’t have sex. Ever. Thus, Kiều ends her story regaining her virtuosity (but never getting her rocks off with Scholar-dude-lover-#1—denied to lớn the end!).
Truyện Kiều, lượt thích no other Vietnamese literature, has a permanent fixture in Vietnamese culture as its most timeless heirloom. It has been and remains khổng lồ be at the center of an emotional laboratory that shifts with the ebb & flow of political forces. Truyện Kiều is, in my opinion, about…well it’s about whatever people want it to lớn be about—anti-feudalism, anti-Confucianism, anti-colonialism, anti-communism, & even anti-dissident-writerism—basically anyone or anything that is innately beautiful that has experienced subjugation and adversity & that exists at the mercy of forces out of their control—but that remains, despite it all, incorruptible, pure, and unbroken.
Truyện Kiều is actually an adaptation of a Chinese novel described as “mediocre” titled Jīn Yún Qiào (The Tale of Chin, Yuen, & Qiao) written by Qingxin Cairen, a pen name, no doubt, due to lớn its scandalous anti-Confucian storyline. Nguyễn Du stayed faithful lớn the original story và infused it with complex Vietnamese cultural and historical sentimentalities to lớn make it more relatable to lớn Vietnamese readers. In Nguyễn Du’s hands, Jīn Yún Qiào, went from a forgotten soap operatic novel of the “scholar-beauty” trope to a national treasure. Despite its Chinese origin, Truyện Kiều is quintessentially Vietnamese because it is the most successful effort by Vietnamese literati lớn create a body toàn thân of work with tiếng hán that would serve lớn preserve an intimate literary portrait particular to Vietnamese culture. Và this it does so exquisitely.
Throughout the poem are reflections of Vietnam, its culture and its coastal identity. Take these few lines from Huỳnh sinh Thông’s careful culturally-specific translation:
Thương tình con em của mình thơ ngây, Gặp cơn vạ gió tai bay bất kỳ! Đau lòng tử biệt sinh ly, Thân còn chẳng tiếc, tiếc nuối gì cho duyên! Hạt mưa sá nghĩ về phận hèn, Liều mang tấc cỏ quyết đền tía xuân.
Pity the child, so young & so naïve – Misfortune, lượt thích a storm swooped down on her. To part from Kim meant sorrow, death in life – would she still care for life, much less love? A raindrop does not brood on its poor fate; a leaf of grass repays three months of spring.
In this passage, Kiều is faced with sacrificing her true love in order to lớn repay her father’s debt. The verse, “Hạt mưa sá nghĩ về phận hèn,” which Huỳnh translates as “A raindrop does not brood on its poor fate,” is an allusion to lớn a popular Vietnamese folk tuy vậy which laments the fate of Vietnamese women of that era khổng lồ the destiny of a drop of rain falling:
Thân em như phân tử mưa rào (As a young girl, my destiny is lượt thích a drop of rain falling),
Hạt rơi xuống giếng phân tử vào vườn cửa hoa (It may fall into a well or onto a flower garden that is blooming).
Such references touched the heart of Vietnamese people who felt the raw melancholic beauty of the tragedy of their culture. In verse after verse, Truyện Kiều captured in vivid imagery và hypnotic language the life-story of a protagonist that everybody from the peasants in the fields lớn the literati with their books could love, in all of her tragic torment. Lớn quote scholar Phạm Quốc Lộc:
“For a country perpetually fragmented by successive colonial systems & civil wars …Kiều emerged as a symbolic order that united the nation where it was torn apart by cultural và political antagonisms. Culturally, Kiều bridged the gap between the literati và his illiterate neighbors as both read và cited Kiều in their daily life. From urban spaces lớn rural areas, learned scholars và literary men enjoyed Kiều as an inspiring masterpiece of artistic creation, whereas common people recited it as a popular song. Verses from the tale even became part of the people’s daily expression.”
In researching Truyện Kiều, I fell into a chicken & egg dilemma. That is, Vietnamese literary critics & historians love to lớn tie Truyện Kiều up with a bow of anti-feudalism and an air of dissidence that lends the poem lớn the national narrative of heroic victimization và revolutionary, anti-colonial zeal. Truyện Kiều is often lauded as a metaphor of Nguyễn Du’s anti-feudal, anti-Southerner, and anti-Nguyễn dynasty dissidence. Most accounts in English report Nguyễn Du’s alleged reluctance to lớn serve under the dynasty that is often attributed to South Vietnam—the Nguyễn dynasty. They claim that as a former servant of the Lê dynasty, Nguyễn Du was forced to lớn serve the Nguyễns, comparing Kiều’s forced prostitution lớn Nguyễn Du’s service despite his continuing allegiance lớn the defunct Northerner Lê Dynasty.
One can see the allure of this scenario to lớn Communist Vietnam which often traces the origins of their victory in 1975 lớn the Tây Sơn rebellion. Thus, any ill will Nguyễn Du may have felt against the Nguyễn dynasty would be apropo khổng lồ complete their anti-colonial “revolutionary” narrative.
A closer study of Vietnamese historical accounts narrates a tumultuous series of events which are strangely kept out of oversimplified mạng internet historicals. These accounts, mostly in Vietnamese, place Nguyễn Du in the middle of the maelstrom of the Tây Sơn rebellion, a peasant uprising that tore through the Southern regions before spreading North with peasants pillaging và raiding region after region until a number of Nguyễn Du’s friends, families & colleagues were murdered including his older brother. If this conveniently omitted historical fact is true, can we just pause for a moment to lớn imagine what this must have been like for Nguyễn Du? With this in mind, reconsider the metaphors of his popular epic.
After seeing terror rip through his community, Nguyễn Du joined his brother-in-law & others to attempt a failed plot to lớn restore the Lê Dynasty. He then collaborated with others lớn return the single surviving thành viên of the Nguyễn lords, Nguyễn Ánh, to Vietnam. So, if that is true, he actually wanted the Nguyễns khổng lồ return lớn Vietnam. For his part, he was arrested by Tây đánh officials and jailed for three months. Because he was famed for his intellectual và poetic talents, he was purportedly offered a position in the Tây Sơn dynasty. He refused và returned to lớn the countryside. Two decades later, in 1802, Nguyễn Anh returned with the help of the French to lớn seize back control of the country from the short-lived Tây Sơn dynasty. He then unified Vietnam & established the Nguyễn dynasty. Nguyễn Du was then invited khổng lồ join the Nguyễn court, a post he is reported to have accepted reluctantly, still pining for the Lê Dynasty.
It is interesting khổng lồ note, when reviewing history, what is left out & by whom. Little is said about Nguyễn Du’s animosity for the Tây Sơn dynasty while a great giảm giá khuyến mãi of emphasis is placed unduly on his alleged discomfort under the Nguyễn dynasty, despite the fact that he served faithfully until he died, receiving ample promotions throughout his life. Historian Keith Taylor points to lớn the lack of evidence of Nguyễn Du’s alleged dissatisfaction. Moreover, these claims are ironic when considering what happened khổng lồ former South Vietnamese civil servants, government officials, writers, journalists, artists, & veterans of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) under Communist Vietnam. Most were sent to lớn re-education camps where they wallowed in hard labor (some until they died) the camps effectively silencing any who held any hope for a democratic South Vietnam. Their fate was remarkably different from Nguyễn Du’s exalted position in the Nguyễn court.